>> here's some of the latest headlines around in the public to the publishing industry. author and political journalist died on wednesday, august 14th he spent 40 years in political journalism working at the baltimore sun and the washington star. he had just completed work on his forthcoming novel, a short story for page three shortly before his death. he appeared on book tv to discuss his book fat man in the middle seat, 40 years of covering politics. you can once that online and booktv.org. i wednesday and is on publishing announced a new biography series will be available through its kendall devices later this year.
in a press release amazon said it is working to her celebrated authors to write about significant figures ranging from stalin to poke. the first publication is said to be released in december of 2013. >> according to estimates released by the u.s. census bureau bookstore sales dropped nine and a half% in june. monthly sales in 2013 had been running close to the sales of 2012 until the recent drop-off month. the attorneys representing apple , the apartment of justice, and state and consumer class will return to court on august 27 to discuss potential penalties against apple for price-fixing. the presiding judge said she is ready to issue an injunction for the attorneys consideration against apple. concerned any injunction could inhibit innovation stay up-to-date on breaking news by
liking a son facebook. follow was on twitter. or you can visit our website and click on news about books. you're watching book tv. coming up next, the ceo of facebook discusses why is still difficult for women to achieve roles in the united states. this is about an hour and 15 minutes. [applause] >> let's begin by thanking the computer is true museum for putting on this seminar along with the sponsors. this place has been such an interesting place to listen, learn, not only understand history but the future. thank you. >> thank you. [applause] >> i meant sheryl sandberg in
the late 90's when she was running what appear to be about a third of the treasury department, impossibly young and smart, she impressed all those with what she did in the clinton administration in the first and second terms. so when it came time for her to choose a job, it became pretty obvious that she should be ed google. she and i chatted. [laughter] she and i chatted. i figured, this is somebody who we could use, a genuine talent. we did not have a job for her, but we're really smart people. she came in and wander around, work on financing, learn the business. then she figured out there when needed to have a different kind of sales force. in a subsequent six years she build a business that today is somewhere around $20 billion established the recruiting practices that led the company to its current excellence condition.
to save her contribution was astounding was to understated in terms of the number of people cheered all sorts of things in terms of customer service and marketing. then shockingly, shockingly -- [laughter] she shows up in schism going to go work for mark. i said, how could this be. i mean, is there something wrong no. and kate. whenever. so we did various things. her was set to go the facebook were shockingly she did extremely well. [laughter] and in fact she repeated the success the second time which is really not very often occurrence i thought, wow.
pretty impressive. i figured, okay. then she decides to write a book which immediately becomes a number one bestseller. i have no idea what she's going to do as a next encore, but we're talking about one of the great leaders of our industry and today will talk about fear serious subjects. i think of somebody who has built to multibillion dollar businesses already and has a lot ahead of her. with that method is extraordinary have you here. >> thank you. i want to think eric who hired me when no one else would. did me the best career advice which insure will get a chance to talk about. we want it to do the things we do because of great mentors and advisers. eric has been that. tear everything.
>> the book that she has written, is just extraordinary. [laughter] faugh. >> what are they laughing at? >> the best seller. okay. let's try. these are serious subjects. let's start by why did you write this book? frankly, you're busy. >> as you are. >> right. but you are serious the busy. >> no matter how much progress the world -- and get ready for the truth, the world is still a woman in a run by men. >> i'm shocked. >> and not sure how well it is going. [laughter]
>> climate change. >> climate change. i forgot that one. gridlock in washington. >> what is really happening is we have these great products. but it still true that men run every industry in every government and every country in the world. that means that when the decisions are made the most impact on world women's voices and not equally heard which is true in the corporate board rooms, pta meetings and the town hall. so to try to address the issue openly, to talk openly about the stagnation women are facing of the top and to give practical advice to both women and men who want to do their part to change it. >> i would like to cover some of the top picks in the book which i actually really enjoy. i suspect that every single person in this firm is already bought it. if you haven't, we will be selling it here.
book signing. let's start with -- i will read a sentence of two. in addition to the external barriers erected by society women are injured by barriers that exist within ourselves. real ourselves back in ways big and small, lacking self-confidence by not raising our hands and pulling back and we should be leaning in. finish that thought. this is the rationale for the wheat union movement. what you're doing, the extraordinary social phenomenon, extensive use of facebook to make all this happen. >> so women are held back. there are not making it to the top. then an 14% of the top jobs in corporate america for ten years. you taught me very clearly that transit go a prolonged time in and are flat for a long time to go up again. they often go down. you have to be worried about the
boehner held back by all kinds of external barriers, institutional bad public policy, barriers. all of that is really important. we're also held back by the internal a session of stereotypes. niebuhr at my wedding, so you remember this. this step and give a toast. we're not really her younger brother and sister. we're really her first employees , one into. she never really played as a truck. she just organized of the children. it is funny. funnyman fine now. they said it was love, but it was something. if they're saying, the question
is how we experience that because of the stereotypes? that's expected. one of the monroe leaves organizes other kids, she is bossy which we are communicating very young. it is the stereotypes that we internalize. everyone can do this. get to a meeting and what will people say. the women said the back. and so metaphorically and in reality we'll their cells back as well. we're going to fix the problem, the external barriers and internal barriers. >> you talk about the problem of executive women at the table and point out that some leaders actually see this interruption phenomenon. it will call it out in the meeting. it is the only way in your view, and i agree with this, to get
this behavior remained just a minute the conversation an indirect one in. [laughter] >> this is an interview. is not interrupting. this doesn't count. what happens is that more women than men get interrupted at every level. there's an example in my book. when that happens he will interrupt and say to my like to hear what she's saying. when you run meetings, you go around the table and ask a real what they think which accomplishes the same thing. the point is that all of us need to do this. what is really important, it's not just a coo who can do this. you don't have to be eric schmidt. the most junior person in the room can interrupt and say, with like to hear what she's saying. that is a power move. something that will get everyone's career respect. so the thesis of lane in is if we understand the stereotypes and see them playing out and call them now we can change and.
>> in the book you talk about the situation in education. and you point out that what is now becoming clear is we have a crisis of man, not women in the educational system. is a broad generalizations. fema performance in math and science on a broad basis is roughly equal to that of men. there are always said -- exceptions. when these women graduate from college, producing extraordinarily talented women into the workplace, what happens to them, that -- of the man holding them down? of the being discriminated against? failing to act? the talking about this huge cohort of women that have come into the workplace and changes, yet they have not gone to the top.
>> the answer is all the above. women graduate at higher levels the boys. they give more graduate degrees. they give more entry-level jobs along with a college degrees. and so every year fewer women than men get promoted. by the time you to a top, there is not a single country in the world that does not have 95 percent of its top companies run by men. it literally, some of them leave the workforce of they can afford to do so. some stay in the workforce but don't go for information. >> you talk about the stereotype threat. people actually underperform if there are told there are a member of the stereotyped. do you think that's one of the things driving these behaviors? >> and it explains. we're -- it so important to said this is the same thing. if you become aware of the
stereotyped you will act in accordance. this is why if you were my boys and girls, they have to check off mrf, the boys to the same and grows to wars. if you tell those same grows rye before math test, grows to really well on this test, they do better. our stereotypes of boys is that they're better at math and science. girls underperform. we think more boys are computer scientists. i put my son seven years old last summer in camp. you have children. parents are making the decision. thirty-five kids in the class. five girls. of those five, i put to of the man. it was my niece and her friend. this is silicon valley. wakeup. our generation, my age and putting their boys in computer science camp and seven and not girls.
that is stereotyping because they're being told they're better and there will be because they went to the computer science can't. the same thing happens to be very don't ascribe qualities. when a man leaves his natural. i will ask the audience a question. please raise your hand. if anyone ever told you are too aggressive of work. always a few. if you're a woman please raise your hand if anyone ever told you your to rest of the work. kiffin in milan -- >> more when and put up their hand. [laughter] >> that was a joke, guys. one of the great things, you take people through some of this phenomenon. another one that you talk about is called the impostor syndrome which also i think can drive some of this behavior.
what you say his men and women are susceptible. women tend to experience of more intensely in the more limited by it. the beauty is that you vacillate between extreme egomaniac and a complete feeling of, fraud. how does that play out? is it true? it sounds like it is. how does it play out in your view in the minds of women who are trying to succeed in the workplace? >> you don't believe you are in your success. here is what the data shows us. given the same level of performance men remember there's slightly higher. women remember they're slightly lower. we also know that if you ask a man why he was successful -- >> i have to read this to you. >> ask a man to explain his success in the boat typically credit is an innate qualities and skills. never. that's completely wrong. ask a woman the same question and she will attribute her success to external factors,
insisting should do well because you were truly horrible got like your help from others. >> if she doesn't others will. and so what happens with the impostor syndrome is that relative to levels of performance men feel more self-confidence. the amazing thing is i just wrote a whole book on the subject. still happening to me. after my book was done and published we had a meeting. it was a meeting of our senior management team. there is an issue that for years , the single technical leaders wanted facebook to do something and no one else did. for years. of the last couple of months people decided, that is an investment worth making. we had this kickoff meeting. i stuck the meeting by saying i'm so grateful we are here today. for all these years are really believe in this. no one else did. j looks of, i knew cheryl and i
were right and you will come around. [laughter] so facebook messaging was jay. can i use that story on my book tour? sure. jay, can i use a name in a story? have some of it. he is the nicest guy. i read, don't worry. all make sure you don't like egotistical. and now word about that. [laughter] i mean, inconceivable that i would have been a reaction like that. and relative to levels of performance, we continually do this. is that adjustment bibulous in my book is i can't change how anyone feels. i can't change how i feel because i'm still doing this. i can know that as a woman i'm sitting next to on average five. i can now that he feels more self-confidence and of the data which is that women apply for jobs when they meet all the criteria and man when in need
some. >> you saw when officials gives. she really can motivate. this is the from the house she did all these, by getting people to feel very strongly and the passion that you just noticed. a little snippet of social success. you will come back to the whole idea. i'm still interested in the stereotypes and perceptions. if they're true, and i believe they are, they govern all. you talk about the experiments of likability, success and likability of positive from in a negative for women. you remember we studied correlations of mail question is first spin of questioners. when men would hire people they would correctly predict the person they hired success if it was a man. when they scored the likelihood of female, it was anti correlated.
the prediction was attacking long. in nuys commendable, open, well-run companies is quite profound. >> the gender bias we all feel. one thing that happens is as women get more successful they are less light. as men get more successful and powerful, they're better light. what is important to understand is it is true of women and men. often someone will say of work, well, she is not as well liked. if someone tries to point out it is gender bias, but women don't like her also. we all braced calling the locals bossy. the gender bias where we dislike success holds in all of this i find myself in these patterns. it is admitting that we have been making a safe.
it's really important part of the answer. >> i want to talk about how to deal with these things as a woman in the workplace. one of the things that has been covered the most about your book is the it buys the you have about negotiations. and i agree with the way you describe it. you observe that women are much less likely to go for that extra part of the negotiation. you tell stories of your on-line for your inclination was to except the offer, but your brother or friend or whenever said, ask another. and you actually make a suggestion for how women should process this. the way you summarize in his when you go back for the author, the second offer, i just want more common than to say, hey, i want more. what's your problem. and the woman in your advice is to legitimize its request.
this is very important. women i work with have not done this will compared the man. >> because of the stereotyped biases, if a man negotiates for himself we all like him. he supposed to want more. he deserves more. if a woman negotiates for herself -- women can negotiate on behalf of others just as well and aggressively. it is in any issue for themselves. >> you describe this in the book as crossing a minefield backward in high heels. >> exec. >> which is difficult. >> and sure it is. >> almost a scary as your chapter on terrorism. it's great. that chapter is truly -- >> can we get a to your book? >> what i would say is when women negotiate for themselves, when they do the same thing and do they will be disliked and pay a penalty in terms of future
advancement, relationships. so this is really important. >> they will. >> not every case. when women negotiate for themselves they have to legitimize it. i don't like this of vice. i think as long as we're not going to be treated equally when might as well understand stereotypes and use them to make sure we get that and get paid fairly. women have to do is legitimize a vice. i did this in my book. this is the only time will be on opposite sides of the table. you remember that you're hiring. , to negotiate. reminding the person, these skills and bring to a table you can legitimize your advice. i talked to a supervisor. one thing that has been funny,
all of these articles the people are marching in asking for a vice. sheryl sandberg tell me to ask for raise. [laughter] >> the profound escalation. >> when i suggested that you legitimize it, did not really have me in mind, someone in the company. >> the best investment you're never made. $14.40 percent off of your local bookstore. >> when they say sheryl sandberg wants me to get a raise, and do. joking aside, when it paid 23 percent less demand for the san jobs in this country. and that is a problem, and does not just a problem for people to work in the industry. >> 23%. >> women get paid 23 percent less, $0.77 to the dollar in this country for the same jobs. that is not a problem just for the women in come to the computer history museum. and some really big problem with
a single mothers. 30 percent of our children in this country being raised by single parents. almost all single mothers. that $0.23 is a big deal. and lean in is not equality and equity throughout our economy and our country. we have to change that. >> you talk a little bit about career highs. >> in my book the best career advice i never got was from eric schmidt. at talk tonight, but never with eric schmidt on the stage. the way it went is i was thinking about joining google. i loved it and was excited. there was this totally -- the did not really have a job to be so i had a chart of all my criteria.
>> all of these detailed analyses. >> all of my criteria. it meant none of them. my other offers met all of them. i came with my chart and have lunch. it doesn't meet any of my criteria. there is no job. it is unclear what i will do, no goals. he put his hand on my paper and said, don't be an idiot, which is excellent career advice. [laughter] that alone was worth the price of the missions. then he said the best advice i have ever heard. he said get on a rocket ship. yes, you're right. we don't know what you will do exactly. but if you're offered a seat on a rocket ship, don't ask what seat. because what he said is that when industries -- industries are doing well everyone knows.
when they aren't people don't do as well. extrapolating the advice i give people is to go where your skills needed. not everyone can join. but there are areas of every company and every industry, different specialties were your skills are more important and there's a growing need for the. i think that has been the most important career advice i got. >> thank you. of return. i want to go back. i am still upset about this 77 percent no. >> i'm glad. i am to. >> we agree. >> when you talk about child care and talk about the decision to have children, it's obviously a complicated decision for professional women. one of the problems that you describe is unless you are in high-tech and you have stock options are so forth, the math doesn't work. and to me when i look at single moms with kids and so forth, i
can imagine how tough their lives are. if any single component of their life in the day breaks down like a car or whatever, it's a major crisis. is the solution to that to get salaries up? how do we solve this core problem? i have to have a family. you point out in the book that women in during the majority of house work. how do we solve the problem? the biggest area that i worry about is a single mom who has all this pressure on her. it's amazing to me that women can get through this. >> the issues exist on both ends of the spectrum. at the lower end of the spectrum is clear that any public policy reform and institutional reform. we need jobs that are more flexible. the only developed country in the world that does not offer one day of federally paid for and mandated maternity leave.
something like 40 to 50 percent of women in this country and men don't get a single set date paid to take care of themselves or a child. so we must provide affordable child care and solve some of these basic issues. nothing else is as important. on the other end of the spectrum what happens to women as they sometimes do the math on. the salaries go up to afford the child care in need of the time. they say, well, right now if i pay for child care i'm barely breaking even. why do it? she did the calculus. was about to drop out. someone said, wait a second. the station and we'll make more money. she stadium. ten years later salary covers plenty of child care and all kinds of other things. so public policy reform and better negotiating for women, more fair salaries and women to look ahead at what is coming,
not what they have. >> and in the book you talk about, the single most important career decision is whether she will have a life partner into the air. the golan -- in the me just quote. my advice is today all, bad boys, cool boys, commitment phobic. did not marry them. >> correct. >> very good dice. >> and just reading from your book. >> i stand by that advice. absolutely. fecundate where you want. you can dig where you want. it's marriage or a life commitment. now, if you're a woman and thinking about making that commitment, you don't have a problem because to women or two men will split household responsibilities fairly evenly.
it's when you get a man in a woman and an ongoing relationship. every where around the world women did the majority of child care and housework. so as a couple a man has one job and a woman has to pay 70 percent of mothers are in the workforce. they can't we because the need the money. and they're doing two jobs while the husband has one. and i know many women who have jobs like mine who occupy positions of. most of us have husbands and children. all of us have supportive husband. >> and i can actually say that indeed he made the right choice. he is perfect. i wanted to -- and she goes into his perfect this, which is true. but you also describe out rhythms and procedures that women can use, a little test.
you "an unfortunate woman who will probably explain that the way she would do dating is she would determine if the boyfriend was curious, she would arrange a date and in that the last minute rescheduled and see how he handled it. and if you pass that test the next day would be scheduled and then it would turn out that she had defied a summer like sao paulo and he had defied there. did this work? >> actually very happily married and happy for me to share story. more of a story then a vice. however, it is a really important point. until women, date whoever you want. marry someone who wants equality. if you want to be in the work force, going to support you. and that does not mean say yes, it's fabulous for you to get a job. skidding of the middle of the night to change have the diapers because that is what this takes,
men who have had successful careers, helping the mollen. >> you point out that there is a myth that female ceos are not carried. >> that's right strong families to my kids, the whole bit, then managed to work it out. >> like man. >> and so the reason this partnership is so important is these lessons and expectations we have are so deeply held the real ask you another question. please raise your hand if anyone has ever said to you, should you be working? [laughter] don't be shy. if you're a woman and you work and have kids or raise your hand if anyone ever said to you, should you be working. our assumption is that men will do both and women will not.
women have to choose. that is wrong because most women have to do both. we have an economy and society where most women have to work, and most women have children. they're doing both. all of our narrative is about how women can and should which is just unfair. >> the point at which a woman as a significant decision to have a child and is now confronted by the reality of this very limited amount of time of which have always argued it is way too short. women are forced to come back to work with all these tremendous -- stanhope all night in that. and you talk in the book about how eventually the solution is to give of sleep. >> a bad solution. >> clearly. furthermore, you given vice about life. this is sort of another one of these core message is.
the way you would argue -- and perhaps you are projecting. it works when the kids did not exist, but now you have to accept, embrace the messiness of life. the complicated, but rejoice in the complications. you can always change your mind. i've had four careers and three has been. so in this particular case you ultimately say that under enormous pressure because you're running this extraordinary structure, you obviously had help. under enormous pressure. you decided to sort of media time. and you have had to give something up. to give up organization? i obviously your work performance did not suffer. you managed to sort of pull it off. how did you do it? >> i was in europe. a man said, if you want to hire the most efficient person out
there, higher mother. i'm going to take this job, work eight to three, one a full-time salary in be your most productive copy editor. he said she is. i thought i was relatively efficient before i had children. oh, my god. >> by the way, you are really efficient. >> once i had children agreement became precious. and then it became precious for the people. my tolerance for unnecessary meetings which is never night when way down. and what is happening to women, we compare ourselves unfavorably on both sides of the ledger. we compare ourselves to our peers of work who have your own responsibilities and fall short. it's easier for them to take the trips, stay later, and then we compare ourselves a home to the women who or how full time and fall short there. as a working mother you can spend your entire life feeling bad. when you don't people will do it
for you. local to from the public school we get to. an attractive of and kindergarten wearing his favorability should. the st. patrick's day. he supposed to be wearing green. i think really. i'm lucky he has a t-shirt. this would never happen to my husband. it has been dropped or some wariness and t-shirt, the same moment will open the door and say, your such a wonderful father for driving your some school today. i'm a woman, so of course it did happen to me. i said -- spent my entire they're worrying about it. >> by the way, the man would have forgotten the entire transaction. >> correct. >> halfway through this episode of absolute panic i called my husband and explain how everyone
had a green t-shirt but our son. and never go to college. it'll be my fault. all the other women remembered the green t-shirt. my husband just laughed and said our son learned something so implored to the. he does not have to be like everyone else. that is the difference. my husband and i do about the same with our children. i feel guilty all the time to this day even having written a book. my husband thinks he's a hero. [laughter] and the differences about letting ourselves off the out. most of the things we do, we do 80%. >> the way i would express that is redefine success.
>> success doing the best you can. >> one of the things you talk about which is news to me is that primary care giving expectations for mothers have gone out. police and not think that people are spending less time with their parents, but over the last couple of decades the number is gonna buy 60%. >> it's really important. working women and mothers, all of us. a wonderful technology. people work longer hours. my mother says working my generation was 95, and that was it. there was no cellphone. that is changed. we'll work longer hours. mother and his country the same expectation. should think about what parenting was to my mother was a work at home stay home mother full-time. we did not have played bates she arranged. she did not arrange a single one.
many hours, and gays in direct child interaction. i'm not working mother in the 70's. it is an amazing thing to understand. >> that's a pretty helpless statement. this generation of kids will be pretty dead. >> when i figured out that i was actually spending as much real time with my children working full time as my mother did we actually talked about it, it turned out to be true. that was a relief. these expectations of full-time and more than full-time work and a sentence of mothering, it's not possible to do both of those . >> and now want to finish in get to your questions. i have a couple more. you talk in the book a little bit about how women treat other women. and you also face increased
scrutiny because you were seen and ultimately truthfully correctly as a very significant power force in the industry overall gone through this section. we told a stay. >> return is also well. >> they don't listen to me. >> and to me you have a "in here from madeleine albright. women who don't help other women. what do you want women to do based on this sort of set of criticisms? >> the general narrative about women not helping other women. some of it is true that in a world where only one woman was calling to get to the top then it made sense that those women were super competitive. i don't think that's true.
every company i know once more, not less. we need to just -- the other thing is happening is that we have different expectations. everyone is super grateful. if he doesn't do it he faces no penalty. if the woman is asked for a favor of work and doesn't do it, she faces real penalties in terms of promotion, salary. if she does it no one is particularly grateful. part of what is happening is women are legitimately mean to other women because the field competitive. at the competitiveness is rooted in our own insecurity and we need to face that and support each other. some of it is different expectations. the fundamental observation is near 50 percent of the population. the exchange. i have been working with the folks who run one of the most
important bauxites about bringing women who work in the home together. we're all doing it. some of the more beautiful. when the need to support each other because when i think about the women who are at home in either feel insecure because i don't feel like, if given a mother or feel grateful for everything they're doing in my kids' school in my community. i think the same thing for those mothers if we can feel better about ourselves and stop beating ourselves of some much we can also be more generous to reach a >> with the typical courage that you have, yet managed to launch into this a full blast. number one on the best-seller list for the best two months.
it's really -- essentially unleashing a global conversation that is incredibly important. the start by asking, what is the stupidest criticism that you've never heard of you in your book? [laughter] >> they love my bunk. >> something i don't think is that the event of the things need to change. to criticism that i think it's just not rounded. if you read my book, it's very hard to decide. >> those of you just did not read the book and all. >> we need institutional policy to change. we also do a lot to explain why we're holding ourselves back.
encouraging women is not the same thing is blaming, and that distinction is one -- >> yes. seven the symmetric question is what is the most sophisticated criticism? the criticism of the pen the most accurate? if you actually said that person is pretty smart, they're read the book and understood. either mess that all right, cynthia and me to go explore more. >> the best criticism of my book is one i strove with a lot, and trying to change stereotypes i and embracing the stereotypes. ..
which is largely a correct one that when they need to be empowered. they needed to be treated the same. reminiscent to point out was if there is a way to do this which could surrender power. >> i really struggled and i i think it's fair because i struggled with giving advice to negotiate and then i decided the following. when i negotiated, i always tell my team come you go into that room and you will win or lose before you go into that room. it's how much you understand about the other side. so i decided that empowering women to understand stereotypes
and you sent to the damage was part of preparing well for a negotiation in an unfair world. but it is still hype i'm trying hard for me when i get that it is. >> lets us have the audience questions. how do you feel the book's perception. you people really have the? >> eric makes an amazing point in the book, which is revolutions are easier to start and maintain. so i don't know if this is a revolution, but i wanted people to notice that women were stagnating to understand the stereotypes holding us back and forgotten women to try to change them. if you're a business person any write a book on the real risk is no one will read it or care. i am gratified so many people have read it and it's doing it so well, but it's been eight weeks. the real question is what happens now? does anyone remember when too
many women are called two months from now, two years are now, 20 years now. my can only do so much. i started late and data work to try to help women, all of us come together. we're this close to 175,000 participants if you go on facebook in my case, we are there. but we want men and women to join. it is unclear what happens from here. this is going to take so many more places, men and women. men as well trying to change the stereotypes. >> how to respond to the critical feedback of your purchase movement has received? has it changed anything about your approach? have you modified anything based on the reception and this cavalcade of comments pro and against and so forth? >> i don't think there's anything said about my book the day didn't try to address in my book.
i think what people said wasn't surprising. >> but your book at a meta-level talks about that because you point out women face greater scrutiny. >> that's right. >> it's called recursion. [laughter] >> i think what "lean in" is trying to do gets involved. i set this up with debian others as a book, but also a community. we did it in a very open way. the community exists on our website and by its very nature, the community is created by the community. one of the things we hope to do is set up circles. groups of men or women. they're starting all over. a circle is whatever people want it to be. so we envision him as women who are maybe in same industry and they would meet once a month to
support each other. i heard today very group of circle geeks started by foundation batters. they are starting circles. never thought of that. brilliant, loved those fathers. the starters are so lucky. we created a platform. so we do in our industry. we put out ideas and people are running with them. as yearbook do so well, we don't control it. the internet is the first thing that we invented and don't control. >> you've unleashed the movement. >> we've tried. >> people of color will follow and try to support. >> another question. what is the pivotal transition event or moment in your career that defied to you are or what you did with your career and was it something anticipated or did it occur randomly? the >> so many of them. certainly joining google with
you. understanding the mission and how important the mission was to me what i was doing. but eric recruited me to google, all of our initial conversations were about what google was doing in the world. >> sorry to interrupt you. one of the secrets to motivating people is give them the mission to change the world and they will work for you hard. >> that's right. when eric and i first met as google. you were a ceo yet, but the world did not know that yet. look what google is doing in the world. my greatest hope for "lean in" if all those women who have gotten raises and his daughters whose fathers are having monthly meetings to give them the self-confidence to believe they can do anything. >> what you have had the same success with women mentors that she'd had with male mtors? the corol dolary qn, h
you make yourself available as a mentor and will you be my mentor? [laughter] >> this person is not read the book because in the book i say one of the worst questions you can ask a stranger is will you be. it is interesting. i only work for men. eric is among them. i've had a couple female mentors, but mainly men because i've worked for men. one of the points in the book is if we rely on only willing to mentor women, we will never succeed because there aren't enough women at the top. there are unspoken things holding us back so in man and a man in a room having a meeting alone or at a bar having a drink looks like disney's mentoring. a man and a woman being alone or having a drink looks like an older man and a younger woman meeting alone. but let's be clear. we talk about getting more women into positions of power from 86%
are men. so this is all about not just make unit saves, but shearing meant to spend time alone with women. >> effect to tell the bob story. bob of goldman sachs is a very good friend of mine, running up the city of new york says he treats men and women equally so is brought to so much as the night dinners. >> i didn't know him when i read the story, but she know him and i've met him since. >> or 10 years ago he announced he had daughters and he didn't feel comfortable having dinner with women so you would have no dinners. they bake up her at the time. >> either way,, he had dinner with families. >> he was basically saying i understand this implicit bias. so what i'm saying is let's make sexes equal. she was asked, will you have dinner alone with women? said absolutely. as part of my job.
someone will say yes and some will say no, but either way, let's make it an equal. >> we may have some are questions in the audience. we have one over here. whatever additional questions you have. >> what tips do you have for women and men who had taken time off and are finding it to get back into the work place? >> the issue of reentry is a big one. it's usually an issue for women because they're the ones more likely to take time off. but the recession it's been an issue for men as well. my best tips are again looking for areas where your skills are needed and being adaptable. i think silicon valley new and particular set a good example for the country. a lot of people hired based on experience in silicon valley
hires. if you hire based on experience as industries change, experience is less relevant. if you hired based on skills, you can then adapt. i think other industries to the two silicon valley because it's done very well by basically adopting a practice that will help people get back into the workforce. >> one of the ways to promote women's interest is to have a growing economy. there's lots of lots of ways. the simplest way in idea to help solve this problem is to have hiring. it's been difficult to get hiring going on and so forth. >> that the problem is very relevant. we are struggling with public policy issues than they are directly related. your point is we should make the whole economy rocketship. and then there's plenty of seats. >> first principle of business. >> he also lists a lot, we want
cash. >> cash in the bank. >> not hypothetical cash, but in the bank. what's interesting is we have a big question facing our country, which is as our economy going to go with the same rate historically an answer we provide now is now. the reason is we do not have the workforce we need to grow our economy quickly enough. this education and immigration. if we do not education -- educate close to other countries. there are more of them and they are better educated. we are graduating 11% of our kids not being able to read. immigration, a lot of great companies that are celebrating were built on immigrants. you know, face the -- >> there is a heap.u.s. group that marks that outcome which i am a member trying to get this
done. we may actually break that logjam. another audience question. have you had much response from washington? buffers are in the works? does anybody actually listening to you for ignoring you as usual? >> people are listening. the private sector is faster than the public sector. the fact is changed in the book are people and companies and individual women in them. we see women start circles all over. we see a lot of engagement. a lot of people asking for raises. please keep telling everyone. i'm what you ought to have races. men like john chambers. john chambers assigned the book too at the top 400 people and publicly said i thought it was good at this. we are not so good at this. we are going to get better. he stood on a stage and he said
the only way to be the best company in the world does have the best pallet pivot men are 50% of the population. lauren buffett talked all about women this year as a competitive advantage. i want men and women running companies to invest in women not to be nice, but because it's the bottom line. >> the other argument in favor as we face the global competitiveness of beja and asia continues to discriminate against half of the workforce and it's pretty clear you want to use all of your assets and play in order to compete for the global argument favors your argument for women. >> economic growth, good% has been caused by women entering the workforce. if we want the economic growth, will have to continue to do that. >> what made you so brave as to call eric schmidt for a job? was your mother and dad affirming you positively as a
child or did she chastise and correct you all the time? [laughter] >> i would say both. you know, it's mother's day so we'll speak about parenting. my parents were incredibly encouraging. like you could do anything. but they were go sit outside and have an i see. when i was sick, my dad would be a neighbor like you you are well enough to the school. fever doesn't matter. if i was in college and drank a little my father said the best thing for a hangover is a good front. my parents were definitely go out and do than type of parents, but they were also incredibly supportive. >> many political problems seem to be driven by old men and policy positions. climate, health, gun control, where women tend to have different views.
how does your base apply to get more women into politics? >> another passionate about getting more women into politics. it is arguing for more women in positions of power in positions of government are really important. i happen to be in london a few weeks ago when baroness thatcher was buried. she was elected ready for your cigars and only female head of government in the world when she was elected. fast forward 34 years, there are 17. there hundreds of countries. that is just not good enough. i believe if we had were women and politics we have less water. >> and i agree with that. [applause] so following up question from the audience. you think of hillary clinton's time to lean in and win the presidency? [laughter] that's what the question is. >> yes. i want hillary to run. i've told her. i'll tell you.
we brought home a song for my kids for presidents' day. my daughter was four, 76. she listened to this song and she looked up and said mommy, why are they all boys? and i think hillary can be our first female president and i hope she does it. if not, i hope it's not too long before there is another. >> you think an increase in female entrepreneurship could help solve the issue of women not receiving promotions by giving women the power to make these decisions? >> yes. i believe strongly that women in leadership out not just women but all women. companies with more women in senior roles have better workplace policy for women and so yes we need more women in big companies, more women in congress and the need for women notch pursuers. we have a lot of female entrepreneurs in silicon valley. we don't have nearly as many as we have meant.
they don't get sunning at the same level. if you look at the return -- there's a recent study done that is a return on that and they asked for the money they need, not the money they might need. so we need more female entrepreneurs. we need to ask for funding and get it. mmr cache efficient. you go to hiring machine as i described at google, which has been fantastic. your legacy at the company i see everyday. i'm sure you feel the same way about facebook because i'm sure you did the same thing about facebook. one of the questions is what do you look for when you are hiring someone? how do you make these decisions? >> the most important thing i look for and i learned this from you is skills. not experience. experience is great. our industry changes so quickly
that almost none of us have done anything we do now before. it's all new, so you have to have skills. i asked people how they would handle situations and i'm looking for flexibility and looking for this goes i cannot doubt. but the other things are looking for is flexibility. an amazingly had all never forget this. a lot of them are mba students asking about their career path. he said the worst question you can ask us which are career path and that was very good advice because you were saying we want you to be flexible. >> the way i described people call me up and say i'm the vp now and i need to be senior vice president and chief operating officer in your company and i would say click. that's not how we operate. we want you to join our cause. we want you to believe in what we are doing and you will do just fine. that advice worked well for
other people who manage to not screw up and actually shut up and said how can i hope? >> a couple people you and i recruited together that we found in the early days and that was probably a bad decision. >> at the plant also i give this advice in my book. titles are the wrong reason to take a job. every job i've taken, both at google as he pointed out, i was offered jobs with more senior titles ulcer. even when i went to facebook and would've been ceo when i came into work with mark. title doesn't matter as much as the opportunity. you have to focus on that. >> you shift to a new company to get a bigger role at facebook. does it take anything to get that opportunity? >> the data sets for women it often does, but not always.
for all the negotiating reasons we've talked about. as we educate ourselves on the biases they can change that. i don't think it takes moving on. sometimes it does, sometimes it doesn't. but i think it take solving problems. the right way to approach a career save a problem can resolve? was named lori gold was at ebay. i just joined facebook. she called and said i want to work with your facebook. so i thought about calling and telling you all the things i'm good at and i like to do, but i figure everyone's doing that, so instead i want to know what is your biggest problem and can i saw the? my jaw hit the floor. no one says that. my biggest problem is recruiting because i don't have anyone recruiting and we've gone through every interview in hentai menu and higher yet. she came then and now she wants all of human resources and shoes for nike said because she's trying to solve our problems come and not hers. >> this is a great question.
pay attention to this question. do you think part of gender biased behavior in men and women may be genetic as well as social? >> it is such a profound question. i tried to be clear on this in the book. i do not think many women do not have genetic differences. that's silly. >> too many negatives. [laughter] >> i have a son and a daughter. my son will take any toy and hit the other toy and my daughter will take two swords and make the case. [laughter] there are differences. >> and you are trying to solve these by pushing them. >> here's something out. i believe they are genetic differences between boys and girls and men and women. i do not believe leadership is one of them. leadership can have typically male traits get the best leaders have votes and that's been documented over and over.
we can associate with femininity with leadership much as masculinity with nurturing. >> another one of these interesting and the questions. what is your opinion about a woman's physical appearance in the workplace and how it can help or hurt her career? >> the physical appearance one is a real issue. it's much more of an issue for women than for men. you know, i used to tell women at google to dress appropriately. again, dress for success. me and my boss at the time color dress for success talk. we would hire these amazingly smart women from great places of great great skills and sometimes they look like they were going to ignite a. that wasn't going to help them out for. it was the same advice, but i didn't like telling them, maybe you should dress a little more -- in silicon valley i was suggesting genes, not choice.
but he actually thought presenting themselves as serious professionals, which in the silicon valley area can mean genes. i don't overly focus on it. i'm not someone into fashion or close, but i do think that presenting ourselves appropriately. we want to care about the perception we gave. >> how do you you kept murmuring to real and perceived places of power such as public company boards of directors? should reduce some governments are doing are mandating them require a certain percentage of women? >> the issue quoted is a very raging debate. not really here, particularly in europe. i think the issue is each country has to pick what it wants to do. i'm not arguing for quotas for corporate boards in the united states because i not think it's the most important intervention. the reason i don't think it's the most important intervention is because if you look at the countries that are putting and
comers such as some of the scandinavian countries, it hasn't actually moved any numbers. if you look at norway, they require quotas for women on a corporate board. there are two over 40% and hasn't moved other numbers. what we really want to do is move the numbers all the way to route to operating jobs throughout, not just in one place. >> another question from the audience. messages such as you are too aggressive at work. how do you handle it? how do you behave? >> the most important thing lead in this trying to do. i'm trying to help it be easier to address that. part of me is gratified. i know a friend of mine is a talented woman of "the new york times." there was an article that about your summer and a whole bunch of
other people wrote wait a second, she said she's too aggressive. that happens to women, not men. >> said the ability for the crowd source to respond mitigated to some degree. >> i'm hoping other people are helping to change that. whereas before you had to go in and start from scratch and say i appreciate it. what are the ways i'm too aggressive? i think training our managers is so important. there's a man who works at facebook is started this conversation by saying i didn't read your book. it's a little weird. one should at least pretend you read my book? i have listened to you for the last five years. i've been working for you. we did our performance reviews and we got feedback that of women who worked for him as too aggressive. he went back to people, men and women who gave the feedback that
i want to ask you, what did she do this too aggressive? and as she answered if a man had done this exact same thing you would've thought he was too aggressive. they said no. for the best thing we can do is i want them to read my book and engage in this. i want the people in power to understand that. >> the core messages men have to sort it police bias. >> women will say there's a lot of data that says i want to ask you specifically. the best thing with feedback is never be too defensive. we all know when you're trying to give someone feedback you want them to be open so you continue to give it to them. let's talk about this. how might too aggressive? can we get specific? i think it's appropriate to bring up gender and sam may need to change some of my behaviors. but let's also talk about if a man had done the same things, would he have been too aggressive? >> let's do a couple more and
then we'll finish up. sheryl sandberg gives lot of advice for solving the internal issues. what can we do to solve the external issues, which is referring largely to public policy and institutional issues. >> there's a lot we can do. i think we can elect for women. i also think we can run those companies and change the policies ourselves. the book starts with the story. it happened at google. i was pregnant, and very pregnant as eric and i bought also remember. they told megaproject whale was named after me. there's actually a very fair comment. one day i was late for a meeting and i had to park really far away and that didn't work. i talked to my husband at the time who is that yahoo! and said where a pregnancy parking? i'd never heard of pregnancy parking. he told the yahoo! had it in front of every building. i immersed myself into areas turkey's office and said -- he
was doing yoga in the corner. a completely interactive and said we need pregnancy parking and a foot up at all of me and said we sure do. [laughter] but then what he said was i never thought of it before. let's do it immediately. i never thought about it before. pregnancy parking is still there. my point is that if we get more women into these jobs, we will make those. >> in the book you actually say you have to ask if it's okay to ask. >> i felt more comfortable asking because i'm a senior at google. i'm sure a lot of other pregnant women wanted pregnancy parking, but they won in a position to march in and interrupt his yoga. he would've looked up and said who are you? he probably would've said the same thing.
but they would not have the self-confidence. but i was senior and my point is that we need all the institutional reform. one of the best ways of getting it is the women in this audience. go run these companies. putting pregnancy parking. pay women equally. hope when they negotiate. trainer manager is not to tell women they are too aggressive. i think women can be a huge part of the answer here. >> a final question from the audience. are you gearing up for a political run in 2016 to help shape some of the policy discussions to speak about? and if so, which offers? >> i'm not running for office. >> the president of the united dates will be open. >> i'm waiting for hillary. i'm not running for office. more women need to run and more women need to run companies.
i love the implement facebook has in the world and i want to do my job, but also around and get into positions. >> this has been a treat for me for reasons you all don't know. in 2006, cheryl and i were chatting and we thought it would be really fun to have distinguished people come by contacting the company. in her typical organized way, she put together a speaker series, which i was fortunate enough to be interviewer for her. in all of this year's come i never had a chance to interview cheryl at google. i did in fact, by virtue of your initiative in the interview in extraordinarily famous people, including the current president. for me, this has been an amazing personal experience. i thought it would be sort of interesting maybe you could read a little bit of your book. you choose a link in the area to give people a sense. i hope you all understand the unique and ex